Categories:

Conditional Expression Functions

# DECODE¶

Compares the select expression to each search expression in order. As soon as a search expression matches the selection expression, the corresponding result expression is returned.

Note

DECODE in Snowflake is different from the DECODE function in PostgreSQL, which converts data into different encodings.

## Syntax¶

DECODE( <expr> , <search1> , <result1> [ , <search2> , <result2> ... ] [ , <default> ] )


## Arguments¶

expr

This is the “select expression”. The “search expressions” are compared to this select expression, and if there is a match then DECODE returns the result that corresponds to that search expression. The select expression is typically a column, but can be a subquery, literal, or other expression.

searchN

The search expressions indicate the values to compare to the select expression. If one of these search expressions matches, the function returns the corresponding result. If more than one search expression would match, only the first match’s result is returned.

resultN

The results are the values that will be returned if one of the search expressions matches the select expression.

default

If an optional default is specified, and if none of the search expressions match the select expression, then DECODE returns this default value.

## Usage Notes¶

• Note that, contrary to CASE, a NULL value in the select expression matches a NULL value in the search expressions.

• The expr can include set operators, such as UNION, INTERSECT, EXCEPT, and MINUS. When using set operators, make sure that data types are compatible. For details, see the General Usage Notes in the Set Operators topic.

## Collation Details¶

• The collation specifications of the select expression and the search expressions must all be compatible.

• The value returned from the function retains the collation specification of the result with the highest-precedence collation.

## Examples¶

Create a table and insert rows:

CREATE TABLE d (column1 INTEGER);
INSERT INTO d (column1) VALUES
(1),
(2),
(NULL),
(4);


Example with a default value 'other' (note that NULL equals NULL):

SELECT column1, decode(column1,
1, 'one',
2, 'two',
NULL, '-NULL-',
'other'
) AS decode_result
FROM d;
+---------+---------------+
| COLUMN1 | DECODE_RESULT |
|---------+---------------|
|       1 | one           |
|       2 | two           |
|    NULL | -NULL-        |
|       4 | other         |
+---------+---------------+


Example without a default value (note that the non-matching value returns NULL):

SELECT column1, decode(column1,
1, 'one',
2, 'two',
NULL, '-NULL-'
) AS decode_result
FROM d;
+---------+---------------+
| COLUMN1 | DECODE_RESULT |
|---------+---------------|
|       1 | one           |
|       2 | two           |
|    NULL | -NULL-        |
|       4 | NULL          |
+---------+---------------+