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Query Syntax

# WHERE¶

The WHERE clause specifies a condition that matches a subset of rows. You can use the WHERE clause to:

## Syntax¶

...
WHERE <predicate>
[ ... ]

predicate

A boolean expression. The expression can include logical operators, such as AND, OR, and NOT.

## Usage Notes¶

• Predicates in the WHERE clause behave as if they are evaluated after the FROM clause (though the optimizer can reorder predicates if it does not impact the results). For example, if a predicate in the WHERE clause references columns of a table participating in an outer join in the FROM clause, the filter operates on the rows returned from the join (which might be padded with NULLs).

• Use care when creating expressions that might evaluate NULLs.

• In most contexts, the boolean expression NULL = NULL returns NULL, not TRUE. Consider using IS [ NOT ] NULL to compare NULL values.

• In a WHERE clause, if an expression evaluates to NULL, the row for that expression is removed from the result set (i.e. it is filtered out).

## Joins in the WHERE clause¶

Although the WHERE clause is primarily for filtering, the WHERE clause can also be used to express many types of joins. For conceptual information about joins, see Working with Joins.

A WHERE clause can specify a join by including join conditions, which are boolean expressions that define which row(s) from one side of the JOIN match row(s) from the other side of the join.

The following two equivalent queries show how to express an inner join in either the WHERE or FROM clause:

SELECT t1.c1, t2.c2
FROM t1, t2
WHERE t1.c1 = t2.c2;

SELECT t1.c1, t2.c2
FROM t1 INNER JOIN t2
ON t1.c1 = t2.c2;


Outer joins can be specified by using either the (+) syntax in the WHERE clause or the OUTER JOIN keywords in the FROM clause.

When you specify an outer join with (+), the WHERE clause applies (+) to each join column of the table that is “inner” (defined below).

Note

The result of an outer join contains a copy of all rows from one table. In this topic, the table whose rows are preserved is called the “outer” table, and the other table is called the “inner” table.

• In a LEFT OUTER JOIN, the left-hand table is the outer table and the right-hand table is the inner table.

• In a RIGHT OUTER JOIN, the right-hand table is the outer table and the left-hand table is the inner table.

The following queries show equivalent left outer joins, one of which specifies the join in the FROM clause and one of which specifies the join in the WHERE clause:

SELECT t1.c1, t2.c2
FROM t1 LEFT OUTER JOIN t2
ON t1.c1 = t2.c2;

SELECT t1.c1, t2.c2
FROM t1, t2
WHERE t1.c1 = t2.c2(+);


In the second query, the (+) is on the right hand side and identifies the inner table.

Sample output for both queries is below:

+-------+-------+
| T1.C1 | T2.C2 |
|-------+-------|
|     1 |     1 |
|     2 |  NULL |
|     3 |     3 |
|     4 |  NULL |
+-------+-------+


If you are joining a table on multiple columns, use the (+) notation on each column in the inner table (t2 in the example below):

SELECT t1.c1, t2.c2
FROM t1, t2
WHERE t1.c1 = t2.c2 (+)
AND t1.c3 = t2.c4 (+);


Note

There are many restrictions on where the (+) annotation can appear; FROM clause outer joins are more expressive. Snowflake suggests using the (+) notation only when porting code that already uses that notation. New code should avoid that notation.

The restrictions include:

• You cannot use the (+) notation to create FULL OUTER JOIN; you can only create LEFT OUTER JOIN and RIGHT OUTER JOIN. The following is not valid. The statement causes the following error message: SQL compilation error: Outer join predicates form a cycle between 'T1' and 'T2'.

-- NOT VALID
select t1.c1
from t1, t2
where t1.c1 (+) = t2.c2 (+);

• If a table participates in more than one join in a query, the (+) notation can specify the table as the inner table in only one of those joins. The following is not valid because t1 serves as the inner table in two joins. The statement causes the following error message: SQL compilation error: Table 'T1' is outer joined to multiple tables: 'T3' and 'T2'.

-- NOT VALID
select t1.c1
from t1, t2, t3
where t1.c1 (+) = t2.c2
and t1.c1 (+) = t3.c3;


Note, however, that you can use (+) to identify different tables as inner tables in different joins in the same SQL statement. The following example joins three tables: t1, t2, and t3, two of which are inner tables (in different joins). This statement performs:

• A LEFT OUTER JOIN between t1 and t2 (where t2 is the inner table).

• A LEFT OUTER JOIN between t2 and t3 (where t3 is the inner table).

select t1.c1
from t1, t2, t3
where t1.c1 = t2.c2 (+)
and t2.c2 = t3.c3 (+);


The (+) may be immediately adjacent to the table and column name, or it may be separated by whitespace. Both of the following are valid:

where t1.c1 = t2.c2(+)

where t1.c1 = t2.c2 (+)


A query can contain joins specified in both the FROM ... ON ... clause and the WHERE clause. However, specifying joins in different clauses of the same query can make that query more difficult to read.

Support for joins in the WHERE clause is primarily for backwards compatibility with older queries that do not use the FROM ... ON ... syntax. Snowflake recommends using FROM ... ON ... when writing new queries with joins. For details, see JOIN.

## Examples¶

### Simple Examples of Filtering¶

The following show some simple uses of the WHERE clause:

SELECT * FROM invoices
WHERE invoice_date < '2018-01-01';

SELECT * FROM invoices
WHERE invoice_date < '2018-01-01'
AND paid = FALSE;


This example uses a subquery and shows all the invoices that have smaller-than-average billing amounts:

SELECT * FROM invoices
WHERE amount < (
SELECT AVG(amount)
FROM invoices
)
;


### Performing Joins in the WHERE Clause¶

To specify a join in the WHERE clause, list the tables to be joined in the FROM clause, separating the tables with a comma. Specify the join condition as a filter in the WHERE clause, as shown in the following example:

SELECT t1.col1, t2.col1
FROM t1, t2
WHERE t2.col1 = t1.col1
ORDER BY 1, 2;
+------+------+
| COL1 | COL1 |
|------+------|
|    2 |    2 |
|    2 |    2 |
|    3 |    3 |
+------+------+


Note

The comma operator is older syntax for INNER JOIN. The following statement shows the recommended way to perform a join using newer syntax. The query below is equivalent to the query above:

SELECT t1.col1, t2.col1
FROM t1 JOIN t2
ON t2.col1 = t1.col1
ORDER BY 1, 2;
+------+------+
| COL1 | COL1 |
|------+------|
|    2 |    2 |
|    2 |    2 |
|    3 |    3 |
+------+------+


This next section shows 3-table joins and shows the difference in behavior with 0, 1, or 2 (+) outer join operators.

Before executing the queries, create and load the tables to use in the joins:

create table departments (
department_ID INTEGER,
department_name VARCHAR,
location VARCHAR
);
insert into departments (department_id, department_name, location) values
(10, 'CUSTOMER SUPPORT', 'CHICAGO'),
(40, 'RESEARCH', 'BOSTON'),
(80, 'Department with no employees yet', 'CHICAGO'),
(90, 'Department with no projects or employees yet', 'EREHWON')
;

create table projects (
project_id integer,
project_name varchar,
department_id integer
);
insert into projects (project_id, project_name, department_id) values
(4000, 'Detect fake product reviews', 40),
(4001, 'Detect false insurance claims', 10),
(9000, 'Project with no employees yet', 80),
(9099, 'Project with no department or employees yet', NULL)
;

create table employees (
employee_ID INTEGER,
employee_name VARCHAR,
department_id INTEGER,
project_id INTEGER
);
insert into employees (employee_id, employee_name, department_id, project_id)
values
(1012, 'May Aidez', 10, NULL),
(1040, 'Devi Nobel', 40, 4000),
(1041, 'Alfred Mendeleev', 40, 4001)
;


Execute a 3-way inner join. This does not use (+) (or the OUTER keyword) and is therefore an inner join. The output includes only rows for which there is a department, project, and employee:

SELECT d.department_name, p.project_name, e.employee_name
FROM  departments d, projects p, employees e
WHERE
p.department_id = d.department_id
AND
e.project_id = p.project_id
ORDER BY d.department_id, p.project_id, e.employee_id;
+------------------+-------------------------------+------------------+
| DEPARTMENT_NAME  | PROJECT_NAME                  | EMPLOYEE_NAME    |
|------------------+-------------------------------+------------------|
| CUSTOMER SUPPORT | Detect false insurance claims | Alfred Mendeleev |
| RESEARCH         | Detect fake product reviews   | Devi Nobel       |
+------------------+-------------------------------+------------------+


Perform an outer join. This is similar to the preceding statement except that this uses (+) to make the second join a right outer join. The effect is that if a department is included in the output, then all of that department’s projects are included, even if those projects have no employees:

SELECT d.department_name, p.project_name, e.employee_name
FROM  departments d, projects p, employees e
WHERE
p.department_id = d.department_id
AND
e.project_id(+) = p.project_id
ORDER BY d.department_id, p.project_id, e.employee_id;
+----------------------------------+-------------------------------+------------------+
| DEPARTMENT_NAME                  | PROJECT_NAME                  | EMPLOYEE_NAME    |
|----------------------------------+-------------------------------+------------------|
| CUSTOMER SUPPORT                 | Detect false insurance claims | Alfred Mendeleev |
| RESEARCH                         | Detect fake product reviews   | Devi Nobel       |
| Department with no employees yet | Project with no employees yet | NULL             |
+----------------------------------+-------------------------------+------------------+


Perform two outer joins. This is the same as the preceding statement except that this uses (+) to make both joins into outer joins. The effect is that all departments are included (even if they have no projects or employees yet) and all projects associated with departments are included (even if they have no employees yet). Note that the output excludes projects that have no department.

SELECT d.department_name, p.project_name, e.employee_name
FROM  departments d, projects p, employees e
WHERE
p.department_id(+) = d.department_id
AND
e.project_id(+) = p.project_id
ORDER BY d.department_id, p.project_id, e.employee_id;
+----------------------------------------------+-------------------------------+------------------+
| DEPARTMENT_NAME                              | PROJECT_NAME                  | EMPLOYEE_NAME    |
|----------------------------------------------+-------------------------------+------------------|
| CUSTOMER SUPPORT                             | Detect false insurance claims | Alfred Mendeleev |
| RESEARCH                                     | Detect fake product reviews   | Devi Nobel       |
| Department with no employees yet             | Project with no employees yet | NULL             |
| Department with no projects or employees yet | NULL                          | NULL             |
+----------------------------------------------+-------------------------------+------------------+


(Remember, however, that Snowflake recommends using the OUTER keyword in the FROM clause rather than using the (+) operator in the WHERE clause.)