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# PUT¶

Uploads (i.e. stages) data files from a local directory/folder on a client machine to one of the following Snowflake stages:

• Named internal stage.

• Internal stage for a specified table.

• Internal stage for the current user.

Once files are staged, the data in the files can be loaded into a table using the COPY INTO <table> command.

Note

• PUT does not support uploading files to external stages. To upload files to external stages, use the utilities provided by the cloud service.

• The following Snowflake clients do not support PUT:

• Go Snowflake Driver

• .NET Driver

• Node.js Driver

• The ODBC driver supports PUT with Snowflake accounts hosted on the following platforms:

• Amazon Web Services (using ODBC Driver Version 2.17.5 and higher).

• Google Cloud Platform (using ODBC Driver Version 2.21.5 and higher).

• Microsoft Azure (using ODBC Driver Version 2.20.2 and higher).

## Syntax¶

PUT file://<path_to_file>/<filename> internalStage
[ PARALLEL = <integer> ]
[ AUTO_COMPRESS = TRUE | FALSE ]
[ SOURCE_COMPRESSION = AUTO_DETECT | GZIP | BZ2 | BROTLI | ZSTD | DEFLATE | RAW_DEFLATE | NONE ]
[ OVERWRITE = TRUE | FALSE ]


Where:

internalStage ::=
@[<namespace>.]<int_stage_name>[/<path>]
| @[<namespace>.]%<table_name>[/<path>]
| @~[/<path>]


## Required Parameters¶

file://path_to_file/filename

Specifies the URI for the data file(s) on the client machine, where:

• path_to_file is the local directory path to the file(s) to upload. If the files are located in the root directory (or sub-directory) on the client machine:

Linux/Mac

You must include the initial forward slash in the path (e.g. file:///tmp/load).

Windows

You must include the drive and backslash in the path (e.g. file://C:\temp\load).

• filename is the name of the file(s) to upload. Wildcard characters (*, ?) are supported to enable uploading multiple files in a directory.

The URI can be enclosed in single quotes, which allows special characters, including spaces, in directory and file names; however, the drive and path separator is a forward slash (/) for all supported operating systems (e.g. 'file://C:/temp/load data' for a path in Windows containing a directory named load data).

internalStage

Specifies the location in Snowflake where to upload the files:

 @[namespace.]int_stage_name[/path] Files are uploaded to the specified named internal stage. @[namespace.]%table_name[/path] Files are uploaded to the stage for the specified table. @~[/path] Files are uploaded to the stage for the current user.

Where:

• namespace is the database and/or schema in which the named internal stage or table resides. It is optional if a database and schema are currently in use within the session; otherwise, it is required.

• path is an optional case-sensitive path for files in the cloud storage location (i.e. files have names that begin with a common string) that limits access to a set of files. Paths are alternatively called prefixes or folders by different cloud storage services.

The string can be enclosed in single quotes, which allows special characters, including spaces, in location names (e.g. '@"my stage"' for a stage named "my stage").

## Optional Parameters¶

PARALLEL = integer

• Small files (< 64 MB compressed or uncompressed) are staged in parallel as individual files.

• Larger files are automatically split into chunks, staged concurrently, and reassembled in the target stage. A single thread can upload multiple chunks.

Supported values: Any integer value from 1 (no parallelism) to 99 (use 99 threads for uploading files).

Default: 4

Note

A 16 MB (rather than 64 MB) limit applies to older versions of Snowflake drivers, including:

• JDBC Driver versions prior to 3.12.1.

• ODBC Driver versions prior to 2.20.5.

• Python Connector versions prior to 2.2.0.

AUTO_COMPRESS = TRUE | FALSE

Specifies whether Snowflake uses gzip to compress files during upload:

• TRUE: Files are compressed (if they are not already compressed).

• FALSE: Files are not compressed (i.e. files are uploaded as-is).

This option does not support other compression types. To use a different compression type, compress the file separately before executing the PUT command. Then, identify the compression type using the SOURCE_COMPRESSION option.

Ensure your local folder has sufficient space for Snowflake to compress the data files before staging them. If necessary, set the TEMP, TMPDIR or TMP environment variable in your operating system to point to a local folder that contains additional free space.

Default: TRUE

SOURCE_COMPRESSION = AUTO_DETECT | GZIP | BZ2 | BROTLI | ZSTD | DEFLATE | RAW_DEFLATE | NONE

Specifies the method of compression used on already-compressed files that are being staged:

Supported Values

Notes

AUTO_DETECT

Compression algorithm detected automatically, except for Brotli-compressed files, which cannot currently be detected automatically. If loading Brotli-compressed files, explicitly use BROTLI instead of AUTO_DETECT.

GZIP

BZ2

BROTLI

ZSTD

Zstandard v0.8 (and higher) supported.

DEFLATE

Deflate-compressed files (with zlib header, RFC1950).

RAW_DEFLATE

Raw Deflate-compressed files (without header, RFC1951).

NONE

Data files to load have not been compressed.

Default: AUTO_DETECT

Note

Snowflake uses this option to detect how the data files were compressed so that they can be uncompressed and the data extracted for loading; it does not use this option to compress the files.

Uploading files that were compressed with other utilities (e.g. lzip, lzma, lzop, and xz) is not currently supported.

OVERWRITE = TRUE | FALSE

Specifies whether Snowflake overwrites an existing file with the same name during upload:

• TRUE: An existing file with the same name is overwritten.

• FALSE: An existing file with the same name is not overwritten.

If you attempt to PUT a file but cannot because a file with the same name already exists in the stage, you can do any of the following:

• Wait until the existing file’s data is loaded, then retry PUT.

• Rename the file that you want to PUT.

• Set OVERWRITE = TRUE. Do this only if it is actually safe to overwrite a file with data that might not yet have been loaded into Snowflake.

The following platforms support the OVERWRITE option:

• Amazon AWS

• Microsoft Azure.

GCP, the Google cloud platform, does not support OVERWRITE=FALSE. On GCP, the PUT command always uploads the file, even if a file with the same name exists and OVERWRITE is set to false.

The following drivers and connectors support the OVERWRITE option:

• Snowflake ODBC Driver.

• Snowflake JDBC Driver.

• Snowflake Python Connector.

The OVERWRITE option is also supported in SnowSQL.

Supported values: TRUE, FALSE.

Default: FALSE.

## Usage Notes¶

• The command cannot be executed from the Worksheets page in the Snowflake web interface; instead, use the SnowSQL client to upload data files, or check the documentation for a specific Snowflake client to verify support for this command.

• File-globbing patterns (i.e. wildcards) are supported.

• The command does not create or rename files.

• Uploaded files are automatically encrypted with 128-bit or 256-bit keys. The CLIENT_ENCRYPTION_KEY_SIZE account parameter specifies the size key used to encrypt the files.

• The command ignores any duplicate files you attempt to upload to the same stage. A duplicate file is an unmodified file with the same name as an already-staged file.

To overwrite an already-staged file, you must modify the file you are uploading so that its contents are different from the staged file, which results in a new checksum for the newly-staged file.

Tip

For security reasons, the command times out after a set period of time. This can occur when loading large, uncompressed data files. To avoid timeout issues, we recommend compressing large data files using one of the supported compression types before uploading the files. Then, specify the compression type for the files using the SOURCE_COMPRESSION option.

You can also consider increasing the value of the PARALLEL option, which can help with performance when uploading large data files.

Furthermore, to take advantage of parallel operations when loading data into tables (using the COPY INTO <table> command), we recommend using data files ranging in size from roughly 10 to 100 MB compressed. If your data files are larger, consider using a third-party tool to split them into smaller files before compressing and uploading them.

## Examples¶

Upload a file named mydata.csv in the /tmp/data directory (in a Linux or macOS environment) to an internal stage named my_int_stage:

PUT file:///tmp/data/mydata.csv @my_int_stage;


Upload a file named orders_001.csv in the /tmp/data directory (in a Linux or macOS environment) to the stage for the orderstiny_ext table, with automatic data compression disabled:

PUT file:///tmp/data/orders_001.csv @%orderstiny_ext AUTO_COMPRESS=FALSE;


Same example as above, but using wildcard characters in the filename to upload multiple files:

PUT file:///tmp/data/orders_*01.csv @%orderstiny_ext AUTO_COMPRESS=FALSE;


Upload a file named mydata.csv in the C:\temp\data directory (in a Windows environment) to the stage for the current user, with automatic data compression enabled:

PUT file://C:\temp\data\mydata.csv @~ AUTO_COMPRESS=TRUE;