# Authenticating to the Server¶

This topic describes how to authenticate to the server when using the Snowflake SQL API.

When you send a request, the request must include authentication information. The next sections explain how to add this information to the request:

In this Topic:

## Using OAuth¶

To use OAuth, follow these steps:

1. Set up OAuth for authentication.

See OAuth for details on how to set up OAuth and get an OAuth token.

2. Use SnowSQL to verify that you can use a generated OAuth token to connect to Snowflake:

• For Linux and Macintosh systems

$snowsql -a <account_identifier> -u <user> --authenticator=oauth --token=<oauth_token>  • For Windows systems $ snowsql -a <account_identifier> -u <user> --authenticator=oauth --token="<oauth_token>"

3. In your application code, in each API request that you send, set the following headers:

• Authorization: Bearer oauth_token

where oauth_token is the generated OAuth token.

• X-Snowflake-Authorization-Token-Type: OAUTH

Note that you can also choose to omit the X-Snowflake-Authorization-Token-Type header. If this header is not present, Snowflake assumes that the token in the Authorization header is an OAuth token.

• Snowflake-Account: account_locator

If you are using OAuth with a URL that specifies the account name in an organization, you must include this header. See Submitting Queries to URLs with an Account Name in an Organization (OAuth-only).

## Using Key Pair Authentication¶

To use key pair authentication, follow these steps:

1. Set up key-pair authentication.

As part of this process, you must:

1. Generate a public-private key pair. The generated private key should be in a file (e.g. named rsa_key.p8).

2. Assign the public key to your Snowflake user. After you assign the key to the user, run the DESCRIBE USER command. In the output, the RSA_PUBLIC_KEY_FP property should be set to the fingerprint of the public key assigned to the user.

For instructions on how to generate the key pair and assign a key to a user, see Key Pair Authentication & Key Pair Rotation. For language-specific examples of creating a fingerprint and generating a JWT token, see the following:

2. Use SnowSQL to verify that you can use the generated private key to connect to Snowflake:

\$ snowsql -a <account_identifier> -u <user> --private-key-path <path>/rsa_key.p8


If you generated an encrypted private key, SnowSQL prompts you for the passphrase that you created when you generated the key.

1. Generate the fingerprint (a SHA-256 hash) of the public key for the user. Prefix the fingerprint with SHA256:. For example:

SHA256:hash

2. Generate a JSON Web Token (JWT) with the following fields in the payload:

Field

Description

Example

iss

Issuer of the JWT. Set it to the following value:

account_identifier.user.SHA256:public_key_fingerprint

where:

• account_identifier is your Snowflake account identifier.

If you are using the account locator, exclude any region information from the account locator.

• user is your Snowflake user name.

• SHA256:public_key_fingerprint is the fingerprint that you generated in the previous step.

MYORGANIZATION-MYACCOUNT.MYUSER.SHA256:public_key_fingerprint

sub

Subject for the JWT. Set it to the following value:

account_identifier.user

MYORGANIZATION-MYACCOUNT.MYUSER

iat

Issue time for the JWT in UTC. Set the value to the current time value as either seconds or milliseconds.

1615370644 (seconds) . 1615370644000 (milliseconds)

exp

Expiration time for the JWT in UTC. You can specify the value as either seconds or milliseconds.

Note

The JWT is valid for at most one hour after the token is issued, even if you specify a longer expiration time.

1615374184 (seconds) . 1615374184000 (milliseconds)

3. In each API request that you send, set the following headers:

• Authorization: Bearer JWT

where JWT is the token that you generated.

• X-Snowflake-Authorization-Token-Type: KEYPAIR_JWT

### Python Example¶

The following sections describe how to generate a JWT and fingerprint using Python.

For an example of generating a JWT in Python, see sql-api-generate-jwt.py. This example uses the PyJWT module, which you can install by running:

pip install pyjwt


#### Generating a JWT in Python¶

The following sections of code demonstrate how to generate a JWT. For a full example, see sql-api-generate-jwt.py.

Note

This example is intended for use as a reference only. Do not use this code in production applications or environments.

from datetime import timedelta, timezone, datetime

# This example relies on the PyJWT module (https://pypi.org/project/PyJWT/).
import jwt

# Construct the fully qualified name of the user in uppercase.
# - Replace <account_identifier> with your account identifier.
# - Replace <user_name> with your Snowflake user name.
account = "<account_identifier>"

# Get the account identifier without the region, cloud provider, or subdomain.
if not '.global' in account:
idx = account.find('.')
if idx > 0:
account = account[0:idx]
else:
# Handle the replication case.
idx = account.find('-')
if idx > 0:
account = account[0:idx]

# Use uppercase for the account identifier and user name.
account = account.upper()
user = "<user_name>".upper()
qualified_username = account + "." + user

# Get the current time in order to specify the time when the JWT was issued and the expiration time of the JWT.
now = datetime.now(timezone.utc)

# Specify the length of time during which the JWT will be valid. You can specify at most 1 hour.

# Create the payload for the token.

# Set the issuer to the fully qualified username concatenated with the public key fingerprint (calculated in the  previous step).
"iss": qualified_username + '.' + public_key_fp,

# Set the subject to the fully qualified username.

# Set the issue time to now.
"iat": now,

# Set the expiration time, based on the lifetime specified for this object.
}

# Generate the JWT. private_key is the private key that you read from the private key file in the previous step when you generated the public key fingerprint.
encoding_algorithm="RS256"

# If you are using a version of PyJWT prior to 2.0, jwt.encode returns a byte string, rather than a string.
# If the token is a byte string, convert it to a string.
if isinstance(token, bytes):
token = token.decode('utf-8')
decoded_token = jwt.decode(token, key=private_key.public_key(), algorithms=[encoding_algorithm])
print("Generated a JWT with the following payload:\n{}".format(decoded_token))


#### Generating a Fingerprint in Python¶

The following sections of code demonstrate how to generate the fingerprint. For a full example, see sql-api-generate-jwt.py.

from cryptography.hazmat.primitives.serialization import load_pem_private_key
from cryptography.hazmat.primitives.serialization import Encoding
from cryptography.hazmat.primitives.serialization import PublicFormat
from cryptography.hazmat.backends import default_backend
..
import base64
from getpass import getpass
import hashlib
..
# If you generated an encrypted private key, implement this method to return
# the passphrase for decrypting your private key. As an example, this function
# prompts the user for the passphrase.
def get_private_key_passphrase():
return getpass('Passphrase for private key: ')

# Private key that you will load from the private key file.
private_key = None

# Open the private key file.
# Replace <private_key_file_path> with the path to your private key file (e.g. /x/y/z/rsa_key.p8).
with open('<private_key_file_path>', 'rb') as pem_in:
try:
# Try to access the private key without a passphrase.
except TypeError:
# If that fails, provide the passphrase returned from get_private_key_passphrase().

# Get the raw bytes of the public key.
public_key_raw = private_key.public_key().public_bytes(Encoding.DER, PublicFormat.SubjectPublicKeyInfo)

# Get the sha256 hash of the raw bytes.
sha256hash = hashlib.sha256()
sha256hash.update(public_key_raw)

# Base64-encode the value and prepend the prefix 'SHA256:'.
public_key_fp = 'SHA256:' + base64.b64encode(sha256hash.digest()).decode('utf-8')


### Java Example¶

For an example of generating a JWT in Java, see SimpleStatementsApi.java.

Note

This example is intended for use as a reference only. Do not use this code in production applications or environments.

This example uses the following third-party libraries:

• Swagger Codegen: an open source library useful in developing REST APIs and applications.

• Auth0: provides Java APIs for authentication and generating JWT tokens.

### Node.js Example¶

For an example of generating a JWT in Node.js, see sql-api-generate-jwt.js.

Note

This example is intended for use as a reference only. Do not use this code in production applications or environments.