Step 1: Create the Remote Service (Azure Function) in the Portal

This topic provides detailed instructions for creating an Azure Function for use as the remote service for your external function.

In this Topic:

Create the Azure Function App

There are multiple possible ways to create a remote service. This section shows how to create a remote service that is implemented as a JavaScript function.

This external function is synchronous. For information about creating an asynchronous external function, see Creating an Asynchronous Function on Azure.

Create an Azure Function app to serve as a container for the function(s) that you create later:

  1. If you haven’t already, log into the Azure Portal.

  2. Create the Azure Function app by following the instructions in the Microsoft documentation: Azure Function App.

    As you follow the instructions, remember the following:

    • When you enter a name the Function App Name:extui: field, also record the name in the “Azure Function app name” field in your tracking worksheet.

    • When asked to choose how to Publish, choose Code.

    • Some restrictions apply when creating multiple apps in the same resource group. For details, see the Microsoft documentation: Azure app service.

    Snowflake provides a sample “echo” function in Node.js. To use this sample function to get started:

    • When asked for the Runtime stack, select Node.js.

    • When asked for the version of Node.js, select version 12.

    • When asked which OS to run the function on, choose “Windows” or “Linux”.

      • If you are only creating a demo function, Snowflake recommends selecting “Windows”.

        Linux Function Apps cannot be edited in the Azure Portal. Users must publish the code through the Visual Studio Code interface.

      • If you want to run your Azure Function on Linux rather than Microsoft Windows, see the Microsoft documentation: Azure Functions.

        Azure AD authentication is not available on Linux when using the “Consumption” pricing plan for Azure Functions. You must use an “App Service” pricing plan or “Premium” pricing plan in order to authenticate with Azure AD.

        For more details, see the Microsoft documentation: Azure AD.

Create an HTTP-Triggered Azure Function

After you create your Azure Function app (container), you need to create an Azure Function in the container. This function acts as the remote service.

Microsoft allows Azure Functions to be called (“triggered”) different ways. A Snowflake external function invokes a remote service via an HTTP POST command, so the Azure Function you create must be an “HTTP-triggered function”.


You can use the instructions provided by Microsoft to create the HTTP-triggered function:

However, Snowflake provides custom instructions that include additional details and sample code, and suggest a different authorization level than Microsoft. We suggest using the custom instructions in place of Microsoft’s instructions.

Create the Function

To perform the tasks described in this section, you should be in the Function App screen in the Azure Portal. The name of your Azure Function app should be displayed, typically near the upper left corner of the screen.

To create the HTTP-triggered function:

  1. In the left-hand side menu tree, look for the section titled Functions. In that section, click on the item labeled Functions to add a function.

  2. Click on the + Add button.

  3. Select HTTP trigger from the list of potential triggers on the right.

  4. Enter the name to use for your HTTP-triggered function.

    Record this name in the “HTTP-Triggered Function name” field in your tracking worksheet.

  5. Enter the Authorization level.

    Snowflake recommends choosing Function as the authorization level.

    For more information about possible authorization levels, see the Microsoft documentation: HTTP-triggered functions.

  6. Click on the button titled Add.

    This takes you to a screen that shows the function name and, below that, the word Function.

  7. In the tree menu on the left-hand side, click on Code + Test.

  8. Replace the default code with your own code.

    Sample code for a JavaScript “echo” function is provided below.

    The function reads each row, then copies the row to the output (results). The row number is also included in the output. The output is returned as part of a multi-level dictionary.

    This function accepts and returns data in the same format (JSON) that Snowflake sends and reads. For more details about data formats, see Remote Service Input and Output Data Formats .

    Normally, the function returns HTTP code 200. If no rows are passed to the function (i.e. if the request body is empty), the function returns error code 400.

    module.exports = async function(context, request) {
        context.log('JavaScript HTTP trigger function processed a request.');
        if (request.body) {
            var rows =;
            var results = [];
            rows.forEach(row => {
                results.push([row[0], row]);
            results = {data: results}
            context.res = {
                status: 200,
                body: JSON.stringify(results)
       else {
           context.res = {
               status: 400,
               body: "Please pass data in the request body."
  9. Click on the Save button above the code.

Test the Function

To test the HTTP-triggered Azure Function you just created, paste the following sample data into the Body field and click on the Test/Run button:

    "data": [ [ 0, 43, "page" ], [ 1, 42, "life, the universe, and everything" ] ]

The content of the output should be similar to the following:

{ "data":
        [ 0, [ 0, 43, "page" ] ],
        [ 1, [ 1, 42, "life, the universe, and everything" ]  ]

Note that the formatting might be different from what is shown above.

Set the Authorization Requirements for the Azure Function App

When an external function is called, Snowflake sends an HTTP POST command to the proxy service (e.g. the Azure API Management service), which relays the POST to the remote service (e.g. the Azure Function).

Each of these two steps should have authorization requirements, so you typically specify:

  • The authorization needed to call the API Management service.

  • The authorization needed to call functions in the Azure Function app that contains your Azure Function.

This section describes how to require authorization for your Azure Function app. The API Management service is created later, so its authorization requirements are also specified later.

When Snowflake authenticates with your Azure Function app, Snowflake uses OAuth client credential grant flow with Azure AD.

For more details about the client credential grant flow, see the Microsoft documentation: client credential.

This client credential flow requires an Azure AD app registration that represents the Azure Function app.

This section includes instructions for creating the Azure AD app registration for the Azure Function app. For example, you can set your Azure Function app to require Azure AD authentication. To configure authorization via Azure AD, you must:

  • Create an Azure AD app registration, which is an Azure AD-based entity that represents an identity or resource identifier (i.e. what you want to protect).

  • Associate the Azure AD app registration with the Azure Function app for which you want to require authentication.


For Azure Functions, the fastest way to create an Azure AD app registration is by enabling Azure AD Authentication for the service, as documented below. If you are using a remote service other than an Azure Function, use the App registrations page to create a new Azure AD app registration for your remote service.

For more details about app registration, see the Microsoft documentation:

Enable App Service Authentication for the Azure Function App

Before you execute the steps below, you should be on the Function App screen for your Azure Function app.

  1. In the left-hand menu pane, look for the section named Settings and click on Authentication / Authorization.

    If the left-hand margin shows the Developer menu (with Code + Test, Integration, etc.), if you have a scroll bar at the bottom of your screen, try sliding the scroll bar to the left to return to the Function App or App Service section, and then look for Settings.

  2. Find the App Service Authentication button and change it from Off to On.

    If you cannot change settings on this Authentication / Authorization page, see the Unable to Modify Settings During Creation of the Azure Function troubleshooting tip.

  3. Find the Action to take when request is not authenticated drop-down menu and select Log in with Azure Active Directory.

  4. Under Authentication Providers, select Azure Active Directory if it is not already selected.

  5. Click on Azure Active Directory, which should take you to the Azure Active Directory Settings screen.

Register the Azure AD App

At this point, you should be on the Azure Active Directory Settings screen. To register the AD app for your Azure Function app:

  1. Change the first Management mode button from Off to either Express or Advanced. The following instructions assume that you chose Express.

  2. Find the second Management mode button and select either Create New AD App or Select Existing AD App.

    For this demonstration, select Create New AD App unless you already have an Azure AD app registration that you want to use.

  3. By default, the Azure AD app registration name is the same as the Azure Function app name. This name should appear in the Create App field. You can change this name if you want.

    Record the Azure AD app registration name in the “Azure Function AD app registration name” field in your tracking worksheet.

  4. Click on the OK button on the bottom left of your window. This creates an Azure AD app registration and returns you to the App Service Authentication / Authorization screen.

  5. Verify that the App Service Authentication button is On.

  6. Click the Save button, which is near the upper left corner of the main pane (to the right of the menu pane).

Most of the preceding steps are also documented in the Microsoft documentation: Configure an authentication provider.

Verify the Azure AD App

Now that your Azure AD app is registered, the last step is to verify that the app is listed under App registrations:

  1. Open a new browser tab and go to, then click on App registrations.

    If this is not visible, then search for App registrations in the Microsoft Azure search window near the top of the screen.

    You should now be on the App registrations screen where you should see two tabs, All applications and Owned applications.

  2. Select the All applications tab if it is not already selected.

  3. Click on the name of the Azure AD app registration that you just created for your Azure Function app.


    You can use the search bar to search for your Azure AD app by name. To do so, enter the first few characters of the name. The search bar assumes that you are typing the leading part of the name; it does not search for the specified substring everywhere in the function names.

    This should take you to the App registrations screen.

  4. On the App registrations screen that describes the Azure AD App for your Azure Function app, you should see the name of your Azure AD App.

  5. Find the Application (client) ID field.

    Record this ID in the Azure Function App AD Application ID field in your tracking worksheet.


    Make sure you copy the ID, not the Azure AD application name. The ID should contain a UUID.