# Installing SnowSQL¶

This topic describes how to download and install SnowSQL on all supported platforms.

Note

In this Topic:

## Installing SnowSQL on Linux Using the Installer¶

This section describes how to download, verify, and run the installer package to install SnowSQL on Linux.

By default, the installer sets up SnowSQL to upgrade to patch versions automatically. For information about the auto-upgrade feature, see What is Auto-upgrade? (in this topic).

If you prefer to upgrade SnowSQL manually (e.g. if your software installation policy prohibits upgrading automatically), use the RPM package to install SnowSQL. The RPM package does not set up SnowSQL to upgrade automatically. For instructions, see Installing SnowSQL on Linux Using the RPM Package (in this topic).

By default, the SnowSQL installer downloads the binaries to the following directory:

~/.snowsql

~/.snowsql/config

To change both the download directory and location of the configuration file, set the WORKSPACE environment variable to any user-writable directory. This approach is particularly useful if you have an isolated SnowSQL environment for each process.

In addition, you can separate the download directory from the configuration file by setting the SNOWSQL_DOWNLOAD_DIR environment variable so that multiple SnowSQL processes can share the binaries. For example:

$SNOWSQL_DOWNLOAD_DIR=/var/shared snowsql -h  Note that SNOWSQL_DOWNLOAD_DIR is supported starting with the SnowSQL 1.1.70 bootstrap version. To check the version you are using, execute the following command from the terminal window prompt: $ snowsql --bootstrap-version


Go to the SnowSQL Download page, find the version of the SnowSQL that you want to install, and download the files with the following filename extensions:

If you want to download the installer from a script or a terminal window (e.g. by using curl, rather than your web browser), you can download the installers directly from the Snowflake Client Repository. For increased flexibility, Snowflake provides both Amazon Web Services (AWS) and Azure endpoints for the repository. Accounts hosted on any supported cloud platform can download the installer from either endpoint.

Run curl (or an equivalent command line tool) to download the installer. The curl syntax is as follows:

AWS endpoint
$curl -O https://sfc-repo.snowflakecomputing.com/snowsql/bootstrap/<bootstrap_version>/linux_x86_64/snowsql-<version>-linux_x86_64.bash  Microsoft Azure endpoint $ curl -O https://sfc-repo.azure.snowflakecomputing.com/snowsql/bootstrap/<bootstrap_version>/linux_x86_64/snowsql-<version>-linux_x86_64.bash


Where:

• <version> is the combined SnowSQL major, minor, and patch versions. For example, for version 1.2.3, the major version is 1, the minor version is 2, and the patch version is 3. So, the version is 1.2.3.

• <bootstrap_version> is the combined SnowSQL major and minor versions. For example, for version 1.2.3, the major version is 1 and the minor version is 2, so the bootstrap version is 1.2.

For example, to download the SnowSQL installer where <bootstrap_version> is 1.2 and <version> is 1.2.25:

AWS endpoint
$curl -O https://sfc-repo.snowflakecomputing.com/snowsql/bootstrap/1.2/linux_x86_64/snowsql-1.2.25-linux_x86_64.bash Microsoft Azure endpoint $ curl -O https://sfc-repo.azure.snowflakecomputing.com/snowsql/bootstrap/1.2/linux_x86_64/snowsql-1.2.25-linux_x86_64.bash

### Verifying the Package Signature¶

1. Download and import the latest Snowflake GPG public key from the classic web interface or the public keyserver.

2. Select CLI Client (snowsql) on the left, then click the Snowflake GPG Public Key icon on the right.

Enter the following command, using the GPG key associated with the SnowSQL version:

• For SnowSQL 1.2.24 and higher:

$gpg --keyserver hkp://keyserver.ubuntu.com --recv-keys 630D9F3CAB551AF3 • For SnowSQL version 1.2.11 through 1.2.23: $ gpg --keyserver hkp://keyserver.ubuntu.com --recv-keys 37C7086698CB005C
• For SnowSQL version 1.1.75 through 1.2.10:

$gpg --keyserver hkp://keyserver.ubuntu.com --recv-keys EC218558EABB25A1 • For SnowSQL version 1.1.74 and lower: $ gpg --keyserver hkp://keyserver.ubuntu.com --recv-keys 93DB296A69BE019A

Note

If this command fails with the following error:

gpg: keyserver receive failed: Server indicated a failure


then specify that you want to use port 80 for the keyserver:

gpg --keyserver hkp://keyserver.ubuntu.com:80  ...


# If you prefer to use curl to download the signature file, run this command:
$curl -O https://sfc-repo.snowflakecomputing.com/snowsql/bootstrap/1.2/linux_x86_64/snowsql-1.2.25-linux_x86_64.bash.sig # Verify the package signature.$ gpg --verify snowsql-1.2.25-linux_x86_64.bash.sig snowsql-1.2.25-linux_x86_64.bash

# If you prefer to use curl to download the signature file, run this command:
$curl -O https://sfc-repo.azure.snowflakecomputing.com/snowsql/bootstrap/1.2/linux_x86_64/snowsql-1.2.25-linux_x86_64.bash.sig # Verify the package signature.$ gpg --verify snowsql-1.2.25-linux_x86_64.bash.sig snowsql-1.2.25-linux_x86_64.bash

Note

Verifying the signature produces a warning similar to the following:

gpg: Signature made Mon 24 Sep 2018 03:03:45 AM UTC using RSA key ID <gpg_key_id>
gpg: Good signature from "Snowflake Computing <snowflake_gpg@snowflake.net>" unknown
gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature!
gpg: There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner.


To avoid the warning, you can grant the Snowflake GPG public key implicit trust.

3. Your local environment can contain multiple GPG keys; however, for security reasons, Snowflake periodically rotates the public GPG key. As a best practice, we recommend deleting the existing public key after confirming that the latest key works with the latest signed package. For example:

$gpg --delete-key "Snowflake Computing"  ### Installing SnowSQL Using the Installer¶ 1. Open a terminal window. 2. Run the Bash script installer from the download location: $ bash snowsql-linux_x86_64.bash

3. Follow the instructions provided by the installer.

Note

The installation can be automated by setting the following environment variables:

• SNOWSQL_DEST: Target directory of the snowsql executable.

• SNOWSQL_LOGIN_SHELL: The login shell initialization file, which includes the PATH environment update.

$SNOWSQL_DEST=~/bin SNOWSQL_LOGIN_SHELL=~/.profile bash snowsql-linux_x86_64.bash  When you install a new major or minor version, SnowSQL does not upgrade itself immediately. Rather, you must log into your Snowflake account using SnowSQL and remain connected for a sufficient period of time for the auto-upgrade feature to upgrade the client to the latest release. To verify the SnowSQL version that currently starts when you run the client, use the -v option without a value: $ snowsql -v

Version: 1.2.3


To force SnowSQL to install and use a specific version, use the -v option and specify the version you want to install. For example, execute the following command for version 1.2.5:

$snowsql -v 1.2.5  ## Installing SnowSQL on Linux Using the RPM Package¶ The software installation policy in some organizations prohibits automatic upgrading. If your organization has this policy or if you prefer to upgrade software manually, you can use the RPM package (rather than the installer) to install SnowSQL. The RPM package does not support automatic upgrades. For information about the auto-upgrade feature, see What is Auto-upgrade? (in this topic). ### Downloading the SnowSQL RPM Package¶ Go to the SnowSQL Download page, find the version of the SnowSQL that you want to install, and download the file with the .rpm filename extension. ### Installing the SnowSQL RPM Package¶ The downloaded RPM file can be installed the way that any other RPM package is installed: rpm -i <package_name>  ## Installing SnowSQL on macOS Using the Installer¶ This section describes how to download and run the installer package to install SnowSQL on macOS. ### Setting the Download Directory and Configuration File Location¶ By default, the SnowSQL installer downloads the binaries to the following directory: ~/.snowsql Consequently, the configuration file is located under the download directory: ~/.snowsql/config You can change both the download directory and location of the configuration file by setting the WORKSPACE environment variable to any user-writable directory. This is particularly useful if you have an isolated SnowSQL environment for each process. In addition, you can separate the download directory from the configuration file by setting the SNOWSQL_DOWNLOAD_DIR environment variable so that multiple SnowSQL processes can share the binaries. For example: $ SNOWSQL_DOWNLOAD_DIR=/var/shared snowsql -h


Note that SNOWSQL_DOWNLOAD_DIR is supported starting with the SnowSQL 1.1.70 bootstrap version. To check the version you are using, execute the following command from the terminal window prompt:

$snowsql --bootstrap-version  ### Downloading the SnowSQL Installer¶ To download the SnowSQL installer, go to the SnowSQL Download page. This version of the SnowSQL installer enables auto-upgrade for patches. ### Using Curl to Download the SnowSQL Installer¶ If you want to download the installer from a script or a terminal window (e.g. by using curl, rather than your web browser), you can download the installers directly from the Snowflake Client Repository. For increased flexibility, Snowflake provides both Amazon Web Services (AWS) and Azure endpoints for the repository. Accounts hosted on any supported cloud platform can download the installer from either endpoint. Run curl (or an equivalent command line tool) to download the installer. The curl syntax is as follows: AWS endpoint $ curl -O https://sfc-repo.snowflakecomputing.com/snowsql/bootstrap/<bootstrap_version>/darwin_x86_64/snowsql-<version>-darwin_x86_64.pkg

Microsoft Azure endpoint
$curl -O https://sfc-repo.azure.snowflakecomputing.com/snowsql/bootstrap/<bootstrap_version>/darwin_x86_64/snowsql-<version>-darwin_x86_64.pkg  Where: • <version> is the combined SnowSQL major, minor, and patch versions. For example, for version 1.2.3, the major version is 1, the minor version is 2, and the patch version is 3. So, the version is 1.2.3. • <bootstrap_version> is the combined SnowSQL major and minor versions. For example, for version 1.2.3, the major version is 1 and the minor version is 2, so the bootstrap version is 1.2. For example, to download the SnowSQL installer where <bootstrap_version> is 1.2 and <version> is 1.2.25: AWS endpoint $ curl -O https://sfc-repo.snowflakecomputing.com/snowsql/bootstrap/1.2/darwin_x86_64/snowsql-1.2.25-darwin_x86_64.pkg
Microsoft Azure endpoint
$curl -O https://sfc-repo.azure.snowflakecomputing.com/snowsql/bootstrap/1.2/darwin_x86_64/snowsql-1.2.25-darwin_x86_64.pkg For more information about SnowSQL versions, see Understanding SnowSQL Versioning (in this topic). The macOS operating system can verify the installer signature automatically, so GPG signature verification is not needed. ### Installing SnowSQL Using the Installer¶ 1. Double-click snowsql-darwin_x86_64.pkg in the download location to run the installer PKG file. 2. Follow the instructions provided by the installer. Note The installation can be automated by running the installer from the command line. The target directory can be set to either CurrentUserHomeDirectory (~/Applications directory) or LocalSystem (/Applications directory): $ installer -pkg snowsql-darwin_x86_64.pkg -target CurrentUserHomeDirectory


When you install a new major or minor version, SnowSQL does not upgrade itself immediately. Rather, you must log into your Snowflake account using SnowSQL and remain connected for a sufficient period of time for the auto-upgrade feature to upgrade the client to the latest release. To verify the SnowSQL version that currently starts when you run the client, use the -v option without a value:

$snowsql -v Version: 1.2.3  To force SnowSQL to install and use a specific version, use the -v option and specify the version you want to install. For example, execute the following command for version 1.2.5: $ snowsql -v 1.2.5


#### Configuring the Z Shell Alias (macOS Only)¶

If Z shell (also known as zsh) is your default terminal shell, set an alias to the SnowSQL executable so that you can run SnowSQL on the command line in Terminal. The SnowSQL installer installs the executable in /Applications/SnowSQL.app/Contents/MacOS/snowsql and appends this path to the PATH or alias entry in ~/.profile. Because zsh does not normally read this file, add an alias to this path in ~/.zshrc, which zsh does read.

To add an alias to the SnowSQL executable:

1. Open (or create, if missing) the ~/.zshrc file.

alias snowsql=/Applications/SnowSQL.app/Contents/MacOS/snowsql

3. Save the file.

## Installing SnowSQL on macOS Using Homebrew Cask¶

Homebrew Cask is a popular extension of Homebrew used for package distribution, installation, and maintenance. There is no separate SnowSQL installer to download. If Homebrew Cask is installed on your macOS platform, you can install Snowflake directly.

Run the brew install command, specifying snowflake-snowsql as the cask to install:

$brew install --cask snowflake-snowsql  ### Configuring the Z Shell Alias (macOS Only)¶ If Z shell (also known as zsh) is your default terminal shell, set an alias to the SnowSQL executable so that you can run SnowSQL on the command line in Terminal. The SnowSQL installer installs the executable in /Applications/SnowSQL.app/Contents/MacOS/snowsql and appends this path to the PATH or alias entry in ~/.profile. Because zsh does not normally read this file, add an alias to this path in ~/.zshrc, which zsh does read. To add an alias to the SnowSQL executable: 1. Open (or create, if missing) the ~/.zshrc file. 2. Add the following line: alias snowsql=/Applications/SnowSQL.app/Contents/MacOS/snowsql  3. Save the file. ## Installing SnowSQL on Microsoft Windows Using the Installer¶ This section describes how to download and run the installer package to install SnowSQL on Microsoft Windows. ### Setting the Download Directory and Configuration File Location¶ By default, the SnowSQL installer downloads the binaries to the following directory: %USERPROFILE%\.snowsql Consequently, the configuration file is located under the download directory: %USERPROFILE%\.snowsql\config You can change both the download directory and location of the configuration file by setting the WORKSPACE environment variable to any user-writable directory. This is particularly useful if you have an isolated SnowSQL environment for each process. In addition, you can separate the download directory from the configuration file by setting the SNOWSQL_DOWNLOAD_DIR environment variable so that multiple SnowSQL processes can share the binaries. For example: $ SNOWSQL_DOWNLOAD_DIR=/var/shared snowsql -h


Note that SNOWSQL_DOWNLOAD_DIR is supported starting with the SnowSQL 1.1.70 bootstrap version. To check the version you are using, execute the following command from the terminal window prompt:

$snowsql --bootstrap-version  ### Downloading the SnowSQL Installer¶ To download the SnowSQL installer, go to the SnowSQL Download page. This version of the SnowSQL installer enables auto-upgrade for patches. ### Using Curl to Download the SnowSQL Installer¶ If you want to download the installer from a script or a terminal window (e.g. by using curl, rather than your web browser), you can download the installers directly from the Snowflake Client Repository. For increased flexibility, Snowflake provides both Amazon Web Services (AWS) and Azure endpoints for the repository. Accounts hosted on any supported cloud platform can download the installer from either endpoint. Run curl (or an equivalent command line tool) to download the installer. The curl syntax is as follows: AWS endpoint $ curl -O https://sfc-repo.snowflakecomputing.com/snowsql/bootstrap/<bootstrap_version>/windows_x86_64/snowsql-<version>-windows_x86_64.msi

Microsoft Azure endpoint
$curl -O https://sfc-repo.azure.snowflakecomputing.com/snowsql/bootstrap/<bootstrap_version>/windows_x86_64/snowsql-<version>-windows_x86_64.msi  Where: • <version> is the combined SnowSQL major, minor, and patch versions. For example, for version 1.2.3, the major version is 1, the minor version is 2, and the patch version is 3. So, the version is 1.2.3. • <bootstrap_version> is the combined SnowSQL major and minor versions. For example, for version 1.2.3, the major version is 1 and the minor version is 2, so the bootstrap version is 1.2. For example, to download the SnowSQL installer where <bootstrap_version> is 1.2 and <version> is 1.2.25: AWS endpoint $ curl -O https://sfc-repo.snowflakecomputing.com/snowsql/bootstrap/1.2/windows_x86_64/snowsql-1.2.25-windows_x86_64.msi
Microsoft Azure endpoint
$curl -O https://sfc-repo.azure.snowflakecomputing.com/snowsql/bootstrap/1.2/windows_x86_64/snowsql-1.2.25-windows_x86_64.msi For more information about SnowSQL versions, see Understanding SnowSQL Versioning (in this topic). The Windows operating system can verify the installer signature automatically, so GPG signature verification is not needed. ### Installing SnowSQL Using the Installer¶ 1. Double-click snowsql-windows_x86_64.msi in the download location to run the installer MSI file. 2. Follow the instructions provided by the installer. Note The installation can be automated by running the MSI installer msiexec from the command line. The target directory cannot be changed from %ProgramFiles%\Snowflake SnowSQL. For example: C:\Users\<username> msiexec /i snowsql-windows_x86_64.msi /q  When you install a new major or minor version, SnowSQL does not upgrade itself immediately. Rather, you must log into your Snowflake account using SnowSQL and remain connected for a sufficient period of time for the auto-upgrade feature to upgrade the client to the latest release. To verify the SnowSQL version that currently starts when you run the client, use the -v option without a value: $ snowsql -v

Version: 1.2.3


To force SnowSQL to install and use a specific version, use the -v option and specify the version you want to install. For example, execute the following command for version 1.2.5:

$snowsql -v 1.2.5  ## Understanding SnowSQL Versioning¶ SnowSQL version numbers consist of three digits: <major version>.<minor version>.<patch version>. For example, version 1.2.3 indicates the major version is 1, the minor version is 2, the patch version is 3. To determine the SnowSQL version that currently starts when you run the client, use the -v option without a value: $ snowsql -v

Version: 1.2.3


In general, the following guidelines apply to the different version types:

Major version

A change in the major version indicates dramatic improvements in the underlying Snowflake service. A new major version breaks backward compatibility. You will need to download and install the latest SnowSQL version from the web interface.

Minor version

A change in the minor version indicates improvements to support forward compatibility in either SnowSQL or the underlying Snowflake service. A new minor version does not break backward compatibility, but we strongly recommend that you download and install the latest SnowSQL version from the web interface.

Patch version

A change in the patch version indicates small enhancements or bug fixes were applied. The auto-upgrade feature automatically installs all patch versions. For more information about the auto-upgrade feature, see What is Auto-upgrade? (in this topic).

Note

If a minor version is released, the functionality in your current version should continue to work, but any newly-released bug fixes and features will not be available via the auto-upgrade feature. Therefore, we strongly recommended that you download and install the latest SnowSQL version if the minor version is increased.

By default, SnowSQL upgrades itself automatically to the latest patch version. A new major or minor version requires a manual download and installation.

When a newer patch version is available, SnowSQL downloads the new binary in a background process and executes the current version. The next time you run SnowSQL, the new version starts.

To illustrate the process:

1. For a fresh installation, you download the SnowSQL installer (e.g., version 1.2.0) using the Snowflake web interface and install the client.

2. Each time you run SnowSQL, the client checks whether a newer version is available in the SnowSQL upgrade repository.

3. If a newer version (e.g., version 1.2.1) is available, SnowSQL downloads it as a background process while the current installed version.

4. The next time you run SnowSQL, the client executes version 1.2.1 while checking if a newer version is available.

The --noup option prevents SnowSQL from downloading a new version, if available. You can specify this option while logging into Snowflake to prevent an auto-upgrade during that specific session.

For example:

$snowsql --noup  Alternatively, add the noup = true option to the configuration file to prevent SnowSQL from auto-upgrading until the option is removed or set to false. ### Running a Previous SnowSQL Version¶ If you encounter an issue with the latest SnowSQL version, e.g., version 1.2.2, you can temporarily run a previous version. To determine the SnowSQL version that currently starts when you run the client, use the -v option without a value: $ snowsql -v

Version: 1.2.2


To display a list of available SnowSQL versions, use the --versions option:

$snowsql --versions 1.2.3 1.2.2 1.2.1 1.2.0  To install an earlier SnowSQL version from the list, use the -v option and specify the version you want to install. For example, to install version 1.2.3: $ snowsql -v 1.2.3

Installing version: 1.2.3  [####################################]  100%


Use the same option to specify the version you want to run when you start SnowSQL:

\$ snowsql -v 1.2.3


## Changing the Snowflake Client Repository Endpoint Used by the SnowSQL Auto-Upgrade Feature¶

By default, the SnowSQL auto-upgrade feature uses the AWS endpoint of the Snowflake Client Repository. To change the endpoint in the SnowSQL configuration file, complete the steps in this section.

### New Users¶

To specify the Microsoft Azure endpoint of the Snowflake Client Repository as a new SnowSQL user, execute the following command:

snowsql -o repository_base_url=https://sfc-repo.azure.snowflakecomputing.com/snowsql


Verify the configuration file (i.e. ~/.snowsql/config or %USERPROFILE%\.snowsql\config) includes the following line.

repository_base_url=https://sfc-repo.azure.snowflakecomputing.com/snowsql


### Existing Users¶

To specify the Microsoft Azure endpoint of the Snowflake Client Repository as an existing SnowSQL user, add the following line to the configuration file (i.e. ~/.snowsql/config or %USERPROFILE%\.snowsql\config):

repository_base_url=https://sfc-repo.azure.snowflakecomputing.com/snowsql