Working with Secure Views¶
This topic covers concepts and syntax for defining views and materialized views as secure.
Overview of Secure Views¶
Why Should I Use Secure Views?¶
For a non-secure view, internal optimizations can indirectly expose data.
Some of the internal optimizations for views require access to the underlying data in the base tables for the view. This access might allow data that is hidden from users of the view to be exposed through user code, such as user-defined functions, or other programmatic methods. Secure views do not utilize these optimizations, ensuring that users have no access to the underlying data.
For a non-secure view, the view definition is visible to other users.
By default, the query expression used to create a standard view, also known as the view definition or text, is visible to users in various commands and interfaces. For details, see Interacting with Secure Views (in this topic).
For security or privacy reasons, you might not wish to expose the underlying tables or internal structural details for a view. With secure views, the view definition and details are visible only to authorized users (i.e. users who are granted the role that owns the view).
When Should I Use a Secure View?¶
Views should be defined as secure when they are specifically designated for data privacy (i.e. to limit access to sensitive data that should not be exposed to all users of the underlying table(s)).
Secure views should not be used for views that are defined solely for query convenience, such as views created to simplify queries for which users do not need to understand the underlying data representation. Secure views can execute more slowly than non-secure views.
When deciding whether to use a secure view, you should consider the purpose of the view and weigh the trade-off between data privacy/security and query performance.
How Might Data be Exposed by a Non-secure View?¶
Using the following widgets example, consider a user who has access to only the red widgets. Suppose the user wonders if any purple widgets exist and issues the following query:
SELECT * FROM widgets_view WHERE 1/iff(color = 'Purple', 0, 1) = 1;
If any purple widgets exist, then the IFF() expression returns 0. The division operation then fails due to a division-by-zero error, which allows the user to infer that at least one purple widget exists.
Creating Secure Views¶
Secure views are defined using the SECURE keyword with the standard DDL for views:
To create a secure view, specify the SECURE keyword in the CREATE VIEW or CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW command.
To convert an existing view to a secure view and back to a regular view, set/unset the SECURE keyword in the ALTER VIEW or ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW command.
Interacting with Secure Views¶
Viewing the Definition for Secure Views¶
The definition of a secure view is only exposed to authorized users (i.e. users who have been granted the role that owns the view). If an unauthorized user uses any of the following commands or interfaces, the view definition is not displayed:
SHOW VIEWS and SHOW MATERIALIZED VIEWS commands.
GET_DDL utility function.
VIEWS Information Schema view.
VIEWS Account Usage view.
Determining if a View is Secure¶
For non-materialized views, the
IS_SECURE column in the Information Schema and Account Usage views identifies whether a view is secure.
For example, for aview named
MYVIEW in the
Information Schema:select table_catalog, table_schema, table_name, is_secure from mydb.information_schema.views where table_name = 'MYVIEW';
Account Usage:select table_catalog, table_schema, table_name, is_secure from snowflake.account_usage.views where table_name = 'MYVIEW';
(For general information about the differences between INFORMATION_SCHEMA views and ACCOUNT_USAGE views, see Differences Between Account Usage and Information Schema.)
Alternatively, you can use the SHOW VIEWS command to view similar information (note that the view name is case-insensitive):
SHOW VIEWS LIKE 'myview';
For materialized views, use the SHOW MATERIALIZED VIEWS command to identify whether a view is secure. For example:
SHOW MATERIALIZED VIEWS LIKE 'my_mv';
Viewing Secure View Details in Query Profile¶
The internals of a secure view are not exposed in Query Profile (in the web interface). This is the case even for the owner of the secure view, because non-owners might have access to an owner’s Query Profile.
Using Secure Views with Snowflake Access Control¶
View security can be integrated with Snowflake users and roles using the CURRENT_ROLE and
CURRENT_USER context functions. The following example illustrates using roles to control access to the rows of
a table. In addition to the table that contains the data (
widgets), the example uses an access table (
track which roles have access to which rows in the data table:
CREATE TABLE widgets ( id NUMBER(38,0) DEFAULT widget_id_sequence.nextval, name VARCHAR, color VARCHAR, price NUMBER(38,0), created_on TIMESTAMP_LTZ(9)); CREATE TABLE widget_access_rules ( widget_id NUMBER(38,0), role_name VARCHAR); CREATE OR REPLACE SECURE VIEW widgets_view AS SELECT w.* FROM widgets AS w WHERE w.id IN (SELECT widget_id FROM widget_access_rules AS a WHERE upper(role_name) = CURRENT_ROLE() ) ;
The WHERE clause limits which widgets each role can see.
Suppose that a user who has access only to red widgets executes the query shown earlier:
SELECT * FROM widgets_view WHERE 1/iff(color = 'Purple', 0, 1) = 1;
The secure view’s WHERE clause is executed before any WHERE clause in the user’s query. Because purple widgets are excluded by the view, the user’s query never generates a division-by-zero error.
If the view were not secure, then the Snowflake optimizer could re-order the predicates in the WHERE clauses. This could allow the predicate in the user’s query to execute first, which would allow the division-by-zero error to occur.
Best Practices for Using Secure Views¶
Secure views prevent users from possibly being exposed to data from rows of tables that are filtered by the view. However, there are still ways that a data owner might inadvertently expose information about the underlying data if views are not constructed carefully. This section discusses some potential pitfalls to avoid.
To illustrate these pitfalls, this section uses the sample
widgets tables and view defined in the earlier examples in this topic.
A common practice for generating surrogate keys is to use a sequence or auto-increment column. If these keys are exposed to users who do not
have access to all of the underlying data, then a user might be able to guess details of the underlying data distribution. For example,
widgets_view exposes the ID column. If ID is generated from a sequence, then a user of
widgets_view could deduce the total
number of widgets created between the creation timestamps of two widgets that the user has access to. Consider the following query and result:
select * from widgets_view order by created_on; ------+-----------------------+-------+-------+-------------------------------+ ID | NAME | COLOR | PRICE | CREATED_ON | ------+-----------------------+-------+-------+-------------------------------+ ... 315 | Small round widget | Red | 1 | 2017-01-07 15:22:14.810 -0700 | 1455 | Small cylinder widget | Blue | 2 | 2017-01-15 03:00:12.106 -0700 | ...
Based on the result, the user might suspect that 1139 widgets (1455 - 315) were created between January 7 and January 15. If this information is too sensitive to expose to users of a view, you can use any of the following alternatives:
Do not expose the sequence-generated column as part of the view.
Use randomized identifiers (e.g. generated by UUID_STRING) instead of sequence-generated values.
Programmatically obfuscate the identifiers.
Scanned Data Size¶
For queries containing secure views, Snowflake does not expose the amount of data scanned (either in terms of bytes or micro-partitions) or the total amount of data. This is to protect the information from users who only have access to a subset of the data. However, users might still be able to make observations about the quantity of underlying data based on performance characteristics of queries. For example, a query that runs twice as long might process twice as much data. While any such observations are approximate at best, in some cases it might be undesirable for even this level of information to be exposed.
In such cases, it is best to materialize data per user/role instead of exposing views on the base data to users. In the case of the
widgets table, a table would be created for each role that has access to widgets, which contains only the widgets accessible by
that role, and a role would be granted access to its table. This is much more cumbersome than using a single view, but for extremely
high-security situations, this might be warranted.
Secure Views and Data Sharing¶
When using secure views with Secure Data Sharing, use the CURRENT_ACCOUNT function to authorize users from a specific account to access rows in a base table.
When using the CURRENT_ROLE and CURRENT_USER functions with secure views that will be shared to other Snowflake accounts, Snowflake returns a NULL value for these functions. The reason is that the owner of the data being shared does not typically control the users or roles in the account with which the view is being shared.